3 14, 2024 12:30 Series Blog|シリーズ 「海外の医療トレンド」 001  Overseas Medical Trends

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PPI, SDM, PSP… How does this all fit into ‘Patient Centricity’?

Patient Centricity: From Paternalistic to Partnerships



In the healthcare space globally, the idea of “patient centricity” has been firmly established for some time now – to the point where it may be assumed that there is a single consensus idea of what it means and that everyone is aware of it.

And yet, there are debates about what being patient centric should mean – is it about engagement? outcomes? And what the effective and ethical ways to go about it are.

At its core, we can say that it is an effort in the healthcare space to be more intentional about prioritizing patients in the development and delivery of healthcare related products and services. Within this effort, a key change is the transition from paternalistic, top-down engagement to ongoing collaborative partnerships.

Different Aspects of Patient Centricity: PPI, SDM, PSP

まずはひとつめのアプローチ。前臨床試験の調査段階では、「Patient and Public Involvement(患者・市民参加)」の略である「PPI」というのがあります。開発プロセスの早い段階で、患者さんや一般のステークホルダーに参加いただき、患者さんの状況をより深く理解し、今後のバリュープロポジションを明確にすることを目的としています。PPIの例としては、患者さんとの1対1のインタビューやコ・クリエーションセッションなどがあります。

次に、臨床試験段階が終わり、ローンチ時期が近づくと、「Shared Decision Making(意思決定の共有)」の略である「SDM」にアプローチを転換します。米国国立衛生研究所によれば、SDMとは「医療者と患者が医療に関する共同決定に至るために、最善の医学的エビデンスを共有し、選択肢を検討し、患者が個人特有の選好をできるようにするアプローチ」です。医療分野の企業にとって重要なのは、どのような情報やエビデンスであれば、患者さんや患者さんの周りのステークホルダーに、医療従事者と双方向の信頼関係があると感じてもらえるかを配慮することです。

そして、3つ目に「Patient Support Program(患者支援プログラム)」の略である「PSP」というアプローチがあります。PSPは、診断や治療方針の決定後、その決定に遵守することで最善のアウトカムが得られるよう、患者さんを支援するものです。しかしそのためにPSPは、患者さんに共感され、患者さんの実生活や意欲に沿ったものであり、かつ診断や治療による実際的な障害の解決を試みるものでなければなりません。
Considering the different phases of developing and delivering solutions, there are different ways in which healthcare providers and companies are finding ways to be more patient centric.

There are three kinds approaches within patient centricity we would like to introduce, each being relevant to a different stage of creating better outcomes for patients.

During the pre-clinical trial research phase, we can think about PPI, which stands for “Patient and Public Involvement”. The aim is to engage patients and public stakeholders early in the development process to understand the patient situation more deeply and clarify potential value propositions. Some examples of PPI activities would be with one-on-one interviews with patients or co-creation sessions.

After clinical trials phase and around launch timing, we can shift our thinking to SDM, or “Shared Decision Making”. According to the National Institute of Health, SDM is an “an approach where clinicians and patients share the best available evidence when faced with the task of making decisions, and where patients are supported to consider options, to achieve informed preferences”. The key for businesses in the healthcare space is to think about what kind of information and evidence will help patients and patient stakeholders feel that there is a mutual trust in the relationship with healthcare providers.

Then there are obviously “Patient Support Programs”, or PSPs. PSPs are about helping patients following a diagnosis or treatment decisions in order to ensure the best possible outcomes from adherence to those decisions. But to do so, PSPs need to resonate with patients and align with their real life, their real motivations, and seek to address their real obstacles from diagnosis and treatment. 


Society is Evolving as Healthcare Becomes Increasingly Complex


What are the forces driving the need for a more patient centric approach? Foremost, we can see the availability of information as a key reason. With more information available to more people, increased sense of awareness leads to increased empowerment and expectations. For example, we can see this in the progress around DEI initiatives and precision medicine.

This is a force that has affected all parts of our daily life, not just in the healthcare space. As a result of this greater awareness and capability, there is also an increased complexity of the different systems and stakeholders involved. When it comes to developing and delivering healthcare outcomes to patients, managing this complexity in a top-down, or B2C way is not effective or efficient. By reframing the approach as a collaborative relationship between different stakeholders co-creating value, providers in the healthcare space need to find ways to involve patients and patient stakeholders in various phases. Affirming the importance of patient centricity is a fundamental step towards that goal of co-creating value. 

Patient Centricity Activities are Global and Maturing



Seeing patient centricity as a direction for specific actions, we can see that different players around the world are pursuing patient centricity in different ways at different points in the patient relationship. There is no one-size fits all application of patient centricity, or even activities within specific areas such as PPI, SDM, and PSP. And while patient centricity has been around for a while, what it looks like practically continues to evolve, learning from what is most effective and adapting to new technologies and competition.

While activity is global in scope, it does appear that the majority of activity is coming out of Europe and the United States – which is where we will focus on collecting interesting case studies and emerging trends to present in this blog series. The key is also to look at not just how players are applying PPI or PSP, but also at the business impact such investment leads to.

This blog is the first in a series that we are launching this year to focus on overseas activities related to patient centricity topics. We hope to curate a well-rounded picture of what is going on, and to clarify overall directions and specific learnings for Japanese companies in this space. Please stay tuned.

mct はクライアントがステークホルダーを深く理解するためのお手伝いをしています。
mct Helps Clients to Deeply Understand Stakeholders



mct has been supporting clients with human-centered design research since 2002, with a particularly robust history with clients in the healthcare space and gaining patient-centered insights. We have a long term commitment to understanding patient perspectives and facilitating clients’ efforts to increase organizational empathy with patients and include patient insights into development of products and services.

As patient centricity itself expands and evolves, going beyond just the patient to consider various stakeholders and underlying systems, mct continues to adapt to the changing situation to meet our clients’ needs – supporting patient research, patient-centricity initiatives, refining patient programs, designing new businesses, and more.



英語原文作成:Eric Frey 日本語版編集:程野耕

Eric Frey株式会社mct エクスペリエンスデザイナー


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